第五章 社会变革 岁月如歌
Chapter V Social Change, Music as Life
After the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, Nanshan people under the leadership of the Communist Party satisfied their desires, that is land to the tiller and fishing boat to the fisherman. They made great efforts and played a great enthusiasm to change the poverty and backwardness by developing agriculture, fishery and water conservancy. However, later under the guidance of “Class Struggle as the Key Link”, “Political Border Policy ” and “Cultural Revolution”, Nanshan slowed down economic and social development, forming a great contrast with the development of Hong Kong, therefore, illegal entry into Hong Kong became a common practice. Nanshan People looked forward to a completely historical change for the poverty and backwardness.
Baoan County government was established which was located in today’s Nantou ancient city museum.
Land reform movement is to confiscate the land of the landlord class and then assigned to the landless peasants, aiming at changing the feudal and semi-feudal land tenure into the farmers’ land tenure, emancipating the agricultural productive forces, and preparing for the rapid industrialization. Baoan Land Reform News reflected the economic and social situation and the serious land reform movement in the early 1950s in Shenzhen.
Baoan Land Reform Express
Fight against the Landlords in Every Village
Cartoon for Baoan Land Reform Express---Celebrate New Year
In September, 1958, people’s commune system was implemented, which means the integration of government administration with commune management. Nanshan District belonged to Chaoying people’s commune, having Nantou and Shenkou production management area. In 1959, it was renamed as Nantou people’s commune, which was divided into Nantou people’s commune and Shekou people’s commune in 1963. There were 12 production brigades in Nantou people’s commune, such as, Wanxia, Nanshan, Nantou, Dachong, Zhujiang, Tanglang, Xinwei, Baimang, Shiyan, Shangwu, Guantian and Shuitian. There were 8 production brigades in Nantou people’s commune, such as, Xixiang, Beitou, Daxin, Houhai, Haiwan, No.1 Brigade Fishery, No.2 Brigade Fishery and Dachan Island.
In June, 1953, Baoan County carried out a comprehensive mutual aid and cooperation movement in rural areas. That winter, the first pilot primary agricultural cooperative, Xinqiao agricultural cooperative was established. Agricultural production developed rapidly, and grain yield increased year by year in Baoan. (He Huangyou)
Shenzhen people’s commune was established. (He Huangyou)
Farmers who were sitting on the rice head
How bold you are, how high yield you will have.
People’s Commune Canteen (He Huangyou)
Baoan Nitrogeous Fertilizer Plant (He Huangyou)
Nantou Canning Factory (He Huangyou)
Congress for Poor and Lower-middle Peasants in Baoan (He Huangyou)
Conference of Emulating Dazhai on Agriculture for Outstanding Workers in Baoan (He Huangyou)
30 years ago before reform and opening-up, Nanshan rural farmers still used the inherited traditional farming methods and agricultural technology. From the year 1965 to the reform and opening-up, the delivered tax grain to the state by Baoan ranked the first in Chu Chiang Delta area.
Spring Sowing (He Huangyou)
Spring Sowing and Rice Transplanting by Baoan Farmers (He Huangyou)
Sending Baby for Breastfeeding on the Edge of a Field for not Missing Farming Season (in 1975)
Shatian Female in Western Part of Shenzhen
Fenggu (Grain is separated from the chaff by lifting it in the hands and letting the wind blow the chaff away while the heavier grains drop to the ground.) by Hakka
Poor and lower-middle peasants in Nantou Commune delivered tax grain to the state. (in 1972)
Poultry industry is the traditional sideline oppucation in Baoan, which made significant development in the early 1950s, activated the rural bazaar, and improved the people’s living standard. (He Huangyou)
In 1970, Harvest of Well-known litchi inNanshan.
Growing Oyster and Picking Oyster
Nanshan is located in the mouth of Zhujiang River, with long coastlines and riverbeds, vast beaches, fertile water and mild climate, which is suitable for growing oyster, therefore, it has a long history for oyster growing. According to records, before reform and opening-up, the annual oyster production were still more than 500 tons.
Gather seafood on the beach when the tide is ebbing.
Farmer who grew oyster in 1978
In 1979, the Young Pioneers were playing in the Chiwan beach.
Chiwan villagers were enjoying the performances by the Young Pioneers in 1979.
改革开放前，中国实行 “阶级斗争为纲”的极左路线，尤其是 “文化大革命”十年动乱，国民经济到了崩溃的边缘，与一河之隔的香港形成巨大的反差，诱使深圳河北面的群众纷纷冒着生命危险偷渡香港，致使南山农村只剩老人和小孩。1978年，邓小平在视察广东时说：“这是我们的政策有问题，此事不是部队管得了的。”预示着伟大历史变革的来临。
Illegal entry into Hong Kong became a common practice.
Before the reform and opening-up, China implemented the ultra-left course of “Class struggle as the key link”, especially the “Cultural Revolution”, which pushed the national economy to the brink of collapse, forming a great contrast to the economic development in Hong Kong. Therefore, people from Shenzhen risked their lives and illegally entered into Hong Kong, and then there were only the elder and children in rural areas of Nanshan. In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping visited Guangdong, he said: “this is because our policy deficiency, which cannot be controlled by troops. “, which indicated the coming of the great historical change.
During ten-year chaos of “Cultural Revolution”, leading cadres were denounced and were deprived for authority. Druing the difficult economic times, “Three Fives Policy”(the policies related to the subsidy, prohibition and household ) was taken as the counter-revolutionary revisionist line to be critisized.
People from Shenzhen risked their lives and illegally entered into Hong Kong, who were like flies in Nantou and mosquito in Shenzhen.
Repatriated Illegal Immigrants by Hong Kong British Authorities
Chiwan Village in 1981
Shenzhen Bay Hotel Site in 1981 (He Huangyou)
Nantou in 1983 (He Huangyou)
Nanshan, Nanyuan and Beitou Village in 1983
Shekou Village in 1983 (He Huangyou)
Copy of Cultural Revolution Porcelain
第六章 海洋文化 南山风情
Chapter VI Marine Culture, Nanshan Customs
Shenzhen is a modern immigrant city, but in history there were many times of immigrants. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, because of frequent wars, some distinguished families immigrated to the south. During the Song and Yuan Dynasty, the original emigrants from Central Plains who lived in Zhujixiang of Nanxiong moved to the south for avoiding the war, and some of the emigrants were soldiers and civilians of Southern Song Dynasty who cast away in Chu Chiang Delta region. In the early years of the Qing Dynasty, large amount of Hakka immigrated to Shenzhen because of “Qianhai” (it means that coastal residents moved away from the coastal region for avoiding the war) and “Fujie” (after reunification with Taiwan, the Qing Dynasty allowed the residents to move back to the coastal regions). All the immigrants and Shenzhen original residents integrated well, who made important historical contributions to the early development of Shenzhen. Immigration is the most active carrier of culture which nurtured rich marine culture in Nanshan and showed colorful Nanshan customs.
Nanshan Guangfu, Migration of Hakka Sub-nation
According to genealogical records, the Guangfu sub-nation ancestors were the Hans mostly from the Central Plains, who immigrated to Zhujixiang of Nanxiong passing through Dayuling down south in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and moved to the regions around the mouth of Zhujiang River in the Southern and Northern Song Dynasties.
Human and Culture Prosperity
Immigrants from different regions, with different family background and cultural background gathered in Nanshan, where they sought common ground while accepting the existing differences, shared honor or disgrace and nurtured great scholars, civilians and military officers one generation after another. According to incomplete statistics, there were hundreds of Jinshi (former third degree candidate in the national civil service examination), Juren (former second degree candidate in the provincial examination) and celebrities in the Ming and Qing dynasties
衎我烈祖 匾 南明
两广总督张之洞题“拔元” 匾 清
学著雍宫 匾 清宣统
崇礼堂 匾 清
青花四系带流罐 2件 清
Kan Wo Lie Zu a Plaque Nanming
“Bo Yuan” on a Plaque Written by Zhang Zhidong, Governor of Guangdong and Guangxi in the Qing Dynasty
Xue Zhu Yong Gong a Plaque in the Reign of Xuantong Emperor in the Qing Dynasty
Chong Li Tang a Plaque in the Qing Dynasty
Ancestor Image in the Qing Dynasty
Dressing Case Inlayed Gold in the Qing Dynasty
Two Blue and White Flow Jars with Four Handles in the Qing Dynasty
Foreign Religion Introduction
After the failure of Sino-British Opium War, commercial business could be carried out in five ports, therefore, Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant are collectively called as Christianity) was preached in Shenzhen. In 1870, the Catholic Church was built in Nantou, becoming the Christian mission center of Xin’an County.
There were two activities for Christian preachers: one is to preach Christian doctrine and develop believers, and the other is to be engaged in education, culture, and health work. They were dedicated to study Chinese history and culture and understand customs. Especially, they translated the Bible into Hakka and Guangfu dialect to propagate Christian doctrine books, which made a historic contribution in cultural exchange between China and foreign countries.
Robert Morrison, the first Christian Preacher to China
Nantou and Daxin Village of Nanshan in 1984
Shekou Fishing Port in the 1970s
Fishing Boat Sail in Shenzhen Bay
Book Photo: Xin'an County Annals •Art and Literature• Tiaoyi; Prohibit Despot to be Beneficial to Fishermen in the Reign of Kangxi Emperor in the Qing Dynasty
金漆木雕条案、八仙桌、礼盒 三件套 民国
Production Scene – Offering Sacrifice to Goddess Matsu of the Sea
Eight-leaf Woodcarving Screen with Gold Lacquer in the Reign of Guangxu Emperor in the Qing Dynasty
A Pair of Palace Lantern in the Republic of China
Woodcarving Long Narrow Table, Square Table to Seat Eight People, Gift Box with Gold Lacquer in the Republic of China
Long Roll in Embroidery from Chaozhou, Guangdong Province In the end of Qing Dynasty
盛德凝庥 匾 清乾隆
恩荣耆德 匾 清宣统
The Embroidery Works: Sanxian and Awake Lion in Embroidery from Chaozhou, Guangdong Province In the end of Qing Dynasty
Wooden Plaque in the Republic of China
Shen De Ning Xiu A Plaque in the Reign of Qianlong Emperor in the Qing Dynasty
En Rong Qi De A Plaque in the Reign of Xuantong Emperor in the Qing Dynasty
Shiwan Pottery Lion in the Qing Dynasty
Woodcarving Ancestral Tablet with Gold Lacquer in the Qing Dynasty
Woodcarving Different kinds of Cookie Tablet with Gold Lacquer in the end of Qing Dynasty
Woodcutting Couplet for Birthday Congratulation in the Republic of China